Maria Adams, MS, MPH, RD
Oxalates are naturally-occurring substances found in plants, animals, and humans. The kidneys excrete oxalates into the urine.
Eating a diet low in oxalates can reduce your risk of developing
kidney stones. Kidney stones sometimes form when oxalates and calcium bind together. Decreasing the amount of oxalates that are present in the urine lowers this risk.
A low-oxalate diet usually limits oxalate intake to about 50 milligrams (mg) per day. Because oxalates are found in many different foods, it is important to become familiar with which foods are fine to eat in moderation and which foods should be avoided.
This chart from the American Dietetic Association spotlights foods that are either low or moderate in oxalates. If you have calcium stones, it is important to decrease your sodium intake, as well.
Coffee, fruit and vegetable juice (from the recommended list), fruit punch
Apples, apricots (fresh or canned), avocado, bananas, cherries (sweet), cranberries, grapefruit, red or green grapes, lemon and lime juice, melons, nectarines, papayas, peaches, pears, pineapples, oranges, strawberries (fresh), tangerines
Artichokes, asparagus, bamboo shoots, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, chayote squash, chicory, corn, cucumbers, endive, kale, lettuce, lima beans, mushrooms, onions, peas, peppers, potatoes, radishes, rutabagas, zucchini
Egg noodles, rye bread, cooked and dry cereals without nuts or bran, crackers with unsalted tops, white or wild rice
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, egg whites, egg replacements
Homemade soup (using the recommended veggies and meat), low-sodium bouillon, low-sodium canned
Cookies, cakes, ice cream, pudding without chocolate or nuts, candy without chocolate or nuts
Butter, margarine, cream, oil, salad dressing, mayonnaise
Unsalted potato chips or pretzels, herbs (eg, garlic, garlic powder, onion powder), lemon juice, salt-free seasoning blends, vinegar
Beer, cola, wine, buttermilk, lemonade or limeade (without added vitamin C), milk
Lunch meat, ham, bacon, hot dogs, bratwurst, sausage, chicken nuggets, cheddar cheese, canned fish and shellfish
Tomato soup, cheese soup
Coconuts, lemon or lime juices, sugar or sweeteners, jellies or jams (from the recommended list)
Fruit and vegetable juices (from the recommended list), chocolate milk, rice milk, hot cocoa, tea
Blackberries, blueberries, black currants, cherries (sour), fruit cocktail, mangoes, orange peel, prunes, purple plums
Baked beans, carrots, celery, green beans, parsnips, summer squash, tomatoes, turnips
White bread, cornbread or cornmeal, white English muffins, saltine or soda crackers, brown rice, vanilla wafers, spaghetti and other noodles, firm tofu, bagels, oatmeal
Macadamia nuts, pistachio nuts, english walnuts
Jams or jellies (made with the recommended fruits), pepper
Chocolate drink mixes, soy milk, Ovaltine, instant iced tea, fruit juices of fruits listed below
Apricots (dried), red currants, figs, kiwi, plums, rhubarb
Beans (wax, dried), beets and beet greens, chives, collard greens, eggplant, escarole, dark greens of all kinds, kale, leeks, okra, parsley, rutabagas, spinach, Swiss chard, tomato paste, watercress
Amaranth, barley, white corn flour, fried potatoes, fruitcake, grits, soybean products, sweet potatoes, wheat germ and bran, buckwheat flour, All Bran cereal, graham crackers, pretzels, whole wheat bread
Dried beans, peanut butter, soy burgers, miso
Carob, chocolate, marmalades
Nuts (peanuts, almonds, pecans, cashews, hazelnuts), nut butters, sesame seeds, tahini paste
American Dietetic Association
The Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation
Dietitians of Canada
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Finkielstein VA, Goldfarb DS. Strategies for preventing calcium oxalate stones.
Limited oxalate diet. Ohio State University Medical Center website. Available at:
http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/pdfs/PatientEd/Materials/PDFDocs/nut-diet/nut-other/limit.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2007.
Low oxalate diet. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center website. Available at:
http://patienteducation.upmc.com/Pdf/LowOxalateDiet.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2007.
Nutrition care manual. American Dietetic Association website. Available at:
http://nutritioncaremanual.org/auth.cfm?p=%2Findex.cfm%3F. Accessed January 3, 2009.
Nutrition care manual: urolithiasis/urinary stones food lists. American Dietetic Association website. Available at:
. Accessed January 29, 2010.
The Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation website. Available at:
http://www.ohf.org. Accessed January 3, 2010.
Last reviewed September 2013 by
Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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