Definition | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention


Hematuria is blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood.

There are 2 kinds of hematuria:

  • Microscopic hematuria—Urine contains a small amount of blood, which is not visible to the naked eye
  • Gross hematuria—Urine is visibly discolored by blood, appearing red or tea-colored


In some cases, the cause of hematuria is never found. The list of known causes is lengthy. Some more common causes include:

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of hematuria include:

  • Smoking
  • Medications such as certain antibiotics and pain medications
  • Family history of kidney problems

Kidney Stone

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In some cases, there may not be additional symptoms.

But, if you have an underlying condition, you may have other symptoms. For example, kidney stones can cause blood in the urine, along with pain in the side, abdomen, or groin.

When Should I Call My Doctor?

Call your doctor any time you notice blood in your urine.


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a nephrologist who specializes in kidney disease or a urologist who specializes in the urinary system.

Your doctor may need to test your bodily fluids. This can be done with:

  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests

Your doctor may need to view your bodily structures. This can be done with:


Treatment will depend on the cause of hematuria. Some causes of hematuria require no treatment or will resolve on their own. Other causes will respond to medication. For example, treating a urinary tract infection with antibiotics will stop the hematuria. Still, other causes may require surgery, such as the removal of a tumor or treatment for prostate cancer.


Treating the underlying condition that causes hematuria may help prevent it from occurring.