• Urethral diverticula

    A female urethral diverticulum is a localized protruding of the urethra into the anterior vaginal wall. Urethral diverticula is most often present in the mid or distal urethra and results from the enlargement of obstructe periurethral glands. Incidence of female urethral diverticulum, on average, ranges from 1.4-5%. True incidence is unknown because many urethral diverticula are clinically asymptomatic. Although a urethral diverticulum is often difficult to diagnose, it has been identified more frequently over the past several decades due to increased physician awareness of the condition. Accurate diagnosis and treatment require a high index of suspicion and appropriate radiologic and endoscopic evaluations. The most common associated symptoms are urinary frequency, urgency and dysuria. Occasionally, urethral carcinoma and calculi may be present. When both are present, surgical excision is the treatment of choice. With appropriate surgical management, cure rates are high and recurrences are rare.