Anxiety is a feeling of dread, tension, and unease. An anxiety disorder is when these feelings are more intense than they should be or last for long periods of time. It may also happen even if there is no specific cause. An anxiety disorder also cause problems in day to day life and relationships.
The most common types of anxiety disorders are:
- Specific phobias
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Panic disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- Social anxiety disorder
- Generalized anxiety disorder
The cause of anxiety is not clear. Trauma, regular stress, or genetics may all play a role. They may cause a change in how the brain reacts to stress. Other medical issues and medicine may also play a role.
Women are more likely to report an anxiety disorders than men. Other things that may increase the risk of an anxiety disorders are:
- Family member with anxiety disorders
- Stressful life events
- Not having good habits to manage stress or harmful habits to deal with stress
- History of trauma emotional or physical
- Long term medical illness or treatment
- Substance abuse
- History of self-harm as a teenager
An anxiety disorder can cause:
- Worry or dread
- Intrusive or ruminative thoughts
- Sense of imminent danger or catastrophe
- Fear or panic
- Trouble concentrating
It can also cause physical problems such as:
- Chest pain
- Rapid heartbeat
- Sweating (especially the palms)
- Dry mouth
- Flushing or blushing
- Muscle tension
- Shortness of breath
- Feeling lightheaded or fainting
- Difficulty sleeping
- Choking sensation
- Abdominal discomfort
- Nausea or vomiting
- Feeling of "butterflies" in the stomach
- Sexual problems
- Tingling sensations
- Nail biting or other habitual behavior
|Symptoms of Anxiety|
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The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical and exam will be done. The doctor will also ask questions about emotional health. It is important to be honest and open with the doctor. Many mental health disorders go untreated because people do not ask for help. An anxiety disorder may be suspected based on answers to these questions.
Other tests may be done if there could be another cause of anxiety. A referral may be made to a mental health professional. They can help to diagnose anxiety disorder or other mental health issues.
Anxiety disorders can be managed. Treatment can help to lower the effect on day to day life. The goal is to reduce stress and improve the reaction to it. A treatment plan may include a mix of the following:
Physical health can play an important role. Good overall health can improve mood. This may include getting enough sleep, choosing healthy foods, and exercise. Social support also plays an important role.
Food or drink with caffeine, drugs, and alcohol can also make anxiety worse.
When possible stress should be avoided. Other steps can help to decrease the response to stress. Steps may include:
Therapy will address thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and better understand how it affects day to day life. It can also help you work through traumas and conflicts. There are different types of therapy. A care team will help to find which type is best for each persons needs. Therapy may change over time.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one type of therapy. It focuses on negative thought patterns and behaviors. Practice will help to retrain thinking to decrease reaction to stress and anxiety. CBT has been very effective in children and teens.
Medicine may help those with severe anxiety. Some medicines that are used for anxiety are:
The cause of anxiety disorders is not clear, so prevention is not know. To decrease the risk of an episode of anxiety:
- Be aware of situations, occupations, and people that cause you stress. Avoid them if you can.
- Find a relaxation technique that works for you. Practice it often.
- Grow and keep a strong social support system.
- Express your emotions when they happen.
- Challenge beliefs and thoughts that are not helpful to you.
- Correct misperceptions. Ask others for their points of view.
- Work with a therapist.
- Avoid nicotine or other drugs. If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation. Moderation is 1 drink or less per day for women and 2 drinks or less per day for men.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America https://adaa.org
Mental Health America http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net
Canadian Psychiatric Association https://www.cpa-apc.org
Canadian Psychological Association https://cpa.ca
Antidepressant efficacy in generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/antidepressant-efficacy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder . Accessed January 31, 2020.
Anxiety disorders. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml. Accessed January 31, 2020.
Generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/generalized-anxiety-disorder . Accessed January 31, 2020.
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- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD
- Review Date: 01/2020
- Update Date: 08/12/2020