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by Scholten A
(CKD; Chronic Renal Disease)

Definition

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is when the kidneys do not filter blood the right way. It happens over a long period of time. This causes waste to build up in the body and leads to other health problems.

Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

CKD is often caused by:

Risk Factors

CFD is more common in older adults.

Smoking and alcohol use disorder are the main risk factors. Other things that may raise the risk are:

Symptoms

CKD may cause problems such as:

  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Not wanting to eat
  • Nausea
  • Itching
  • Feeling that it is hard to breathe
  • Change in how food tastes
  • Feeling confused, restless, or sad

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done.

Blood and urine tests will be done to look for problems with how the kidneys are working.

Other tests will be done to find a cause. You may need to see a doctor who treats kidney diseases.

Treatment

There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to prevent or slow damage and manage problems. Options are:

Medicine

The doctor may advise stopping or changing any medicines that hurt the kidneys.

Medicines may be given to:

  • Control health problems that hurt the kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
  • Manage problems caused by CKD, such as swelling, nausea, or feeling tired.

Lifestyle Changes

The doctor may advise:

  • Not smoking
  • Dietary changes
  • Regular exercise

People with severe CKF may need:

  • Dialysis —a machine that cleans the blood
  • A kidney transplant

Prevention

To lower the risk of CKD:

  • Manage health problems that can cause kidney damage, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
  • Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise
  • Do not smoke
  • Limit alcohol

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases  https//www.niddk.nih.gov 

National Kidney Foundation  https://www.kidney.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada  https://www.canada.ca 

The Kidney Foundation of Canada  https://www.kidney.ca 

References

Chronic kidney disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd. Accessed December 28, 2020.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/overview-of-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-in-adults. Accessed December 28, 2020.

Gaitonde DY, Cook DL, Rivera IM. Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(12):776-783.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 12/28/2020