Crohns disease is long term inflammation and irritation in the digestive tract. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohns disease can affect any of the tract from mouth to anus. It is more common in the end of the small intestine or beginning of large intestine. Crohns can have flare ups and periods of no symptoms called remission.
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It is not clear what causes Crohns disease. Genes, the environment, and problems with the immune system may all play a role.
The risk of Crohns disease is higher in those with:
Flare ups of Crohns disease may cause:
- Belly cramps and pain
- Rectal bleeding
- Weight loss
- Weakness and lack of energy
- Mouth sores
- Sores in the anal area
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. Blood and stool tests will be done to look for any problems and rule out other issues. Scopes can be done to look for areas of inflammation. This can be done with:
- Upper endoscopy
A sample of intestine may be removed with a scope for biopsy . The sample will be sent to a lab for testing.
Special dyes may also be used to help highlight the intestines in other image tests such as:
There is no cure. Flare up treatment will manage symptoms and try to avoid other problems from starting. Treatment may also be used during remission to prevent flare ups. The treatment plan can vary. Some step may include:
Medicines to help:
- Reduce inflammation—may be short term for flare ups
- Lower immune system response—may be long term medicines to help prevent flare up
- Manage pain, diarrhea or nausea
- Bowel rest for severe bout of inflammation—no food, only drinking nutritious drinks for a time.
- Nutrition support—vitamins or supplements to improve nutrition during flare up.
- Surgery—to removed damaged areas, improve severe symptoms, or treat complications of Crohns.
Other treatment may be needed to treat other problems caused by Crohns.
Crohn's & Colitis Foundation http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov
Crohn's and Colitis Canada http://crohnsandcolitis.ca
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Crohn disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd/crohn-disease. Accessed March 16, 2021.
Crohn disease in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/crohn-disease-in-adults. Accessed March 16, 2021.
Crohn's disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/crohns-disease. Accessed March 16, 2021.
Lichtenstein GR, Loftus EV, et al. ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Crohn's Disease in Adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 Apr;113(4):481-517.
What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's & Colitis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-crohns-disease. Accessed March 16, 2021.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD
- Review Date: 12/2020
- Update Date: 00/31/2021