by EBSCO Medical Review Board
(Esophageal Band Ligation)


Endoscopic band ligation puts an elastic band around enlarged veins so they cannot bleed.

Banded Blood Vessel
band ligation
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Reasons for Procedure

This is done to treat esophageal varices. These are abnormal blood vessels in the esophagus. They have thin walls and the blood pressure within them is very high. A burst blood vessel can be deadly.

Possible Complications

Problems are rare, but all procedures have some risk. The doctor will go over some problems that could happen, such as:

  • Infection
  • Excess bleeding
  • Painful or difficult swallowing
  • Damage to the esophagus
  • Lung injury

Alcohol use disorder may raise the risk of problems.

What to Expect

Prior to Procedure

The surgical team may meet with you to talk about:

  • Anesthesia options
  • Any allergies you may have
  • Current medicines, herbs, and supplements that you take and whether you need to stop taking them before the procedure
  • Fasting before the procedure
  • Whether you need a ride to and from the procedure


The doctor may give:

  • Local anesthesia—the throat will be numbed
  • IV medicines to help you relax
  • General anesthesia—you will be asleep

Description of the Procedure

You will lie on your left side. A mouthpiece will be placed to help keep the mouth open. A scope with a small light and camera will be placed in the mouth and passed into the esophagus. Images will display on a monitor. Air will be passed through the scope to help view the esophagus better. Instruments will be passed through the scope. The enlarged tissue will be sucked into the device’s chamber. One or more bands will be placed around the tissue to clamp off the blood supply. The tools and scope will be removed.

How Long Will It Take?

About 1 hour

Will It Hurt?

A sore throat is common in the first few days. It may be painful to swallow.

Post-procedure Care

At the Care Center

The staff will give you medicine to ease pain. You will also be monitored for signs of problems, such as blood loss.

At Home

Recovery takes about a week. The tissue that was banded will be shed. You will have a smaller risk of bleeding from the blood vessels.

Call Your Doctor

Call your doctor if you are not getting better or you have:

  • Signs of infection, such as fever and chills
  • Pain that is not eased by medicine
  • Bleeding from the mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bloody vomit
  • Problems swallowing
  • Coughing, shortness of breath, or chest pain
  • Bloody or dark black stools
  • Severe belly pain

If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.


American Gastroenterological Association 

The American College of Gastroenterology 


Canadian Association of Gastroenterology 

Health Canada 


Esophageal varices. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:  . Updated November 12, 2014. Accessed May 5, 2020.

Kapoor A, Dharel N, et al. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2015 Jul;25(3):491-507.

Revision Information