by Scholten A
(Munchausen Syndrome)


Factitious disorder is a mental illness in which a person makes up an illness or injury. This is done for emotional reasons. The person may want attention and care. It is not done for money, food, or housing.

There are two types:

  • The person claims to be sick or injured
  • A parent claims their child is sick or injured —factitious disorder by proxy (Munchausen syndrome by proxy)
Man gurney physician
Man gurney physician
People with factitious disorder seek unnecessary medical treatment.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


The cause of factitious disorder not known. It may be due to brain chemistry and emotional needs.

Risk Factors

This condition is more common in people who are young or middle aged.

Things that may raise the risk are:


Symptoms may be:

  • Going to many hospitals, clinics, and doctors’ offices
  • A long medical history
  • Strange symptoms that change often
  • An illness that returns after it is controlled
  • Strong knowledge of hospitals and medical terms
  • New symptoms appear after negative tests
  • Blocking contact between:
    • Previous and current doctors
    • Doctors and family members
  • Demanding health tests or procedures
  • Causing injury or illness to get attention


The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done.

It is difficult to diagnose factitious disorder. The doctor has to rule out any real illness. A number of tests may be done. If no illness is found, the doctor may refer the patient to counseling.


Factitious disorder is difficult to treat. Some people refuse help. Others may agree to work with a mental health expert.

The goal is to treat the disorder and any other mental health problems. Options may be:


There are no current guidelines to prevent factitious disorder.


National Institute of Mental Health 

National Mental Health Association 


Canadian Mental Health Association 

Canadian Psychiatric Association 


An overview of factitious disorders. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2021.

Bass C, Wade DT. Malingering and factitious disorder. Pract Neurol. 2019;19(2):96-105.

Factitious disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2021.

Münchhausen's syndrome. Patient website. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2021.

Somatic symptom and related disorders. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2021.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD
  • Review Date: 01/2021
  • Update Date: 03/11/2021