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by LaRusso L

Definition

A strained gluteal muscle is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the gluteal muscles. The gluteal muscles are a group of 3 muscles in the buttocks.

Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles
Posterior Thigh Muscles
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Causes

A gluteal strain can be caused by:

  • Stretching the gluteal muscles beyond the amount of tension that they can withstand
  • Suddenly putting stress on the gluteal muscles when they are not ready for the stress
  • A direct blow to the gluteal muscles

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of getting gluteal strain include:

  • Participation in sports that require bursts of speed. This includes track sports like running, hurdles, or long jump. Other sports include basketball, soccer, football, or rugby.
  • Previous gluteal injury
  • Fatigue
  • Overexertion
  • Tight gluteal muscles

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Pain and tenderness in the buttocks
  • Stiffness in the gluteal muscles
  • Weakness of the gluteal muscles
  • Bruising on the buttocks

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Most gluteal strains can be diagnosed with a physical exam. Images may be needed if severe damage is suspected. Images may be taken with an MRI scan .

Muscle strains are graded according to their severity:

  • Grade 1—Some stretching with micro-tearing of muscle fibers
  • Grade 2—Partial tearing of muscle fibers
  • Grade 3—Complete tearing of muscle fibers; this may also be called a rupture or avulsion

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Recovery time ranges depending on the grade of your injury. Treatment steps may include:

Supportive Care

Your muscles will need time to heal. RICE is often the main part of treatment:

  • Rest—Activities will need to be restricted at first. Normal activities will be reintroduced gradually.
  • Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling. Heat or cold may be advised throughout recovery if they provide benefits.
  • Compression—Used for a limited time, compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
  • Elevation—Keeping the area elevated can help fluids drain out or prevent fluids from building up.

Prescription or over-the-counter medications may be advised to reduce pain and inflammation.

Prevention

To reduce the chance that you will strain a gluteal muscle:

  • Keep your gluteal muscles strong so they can absorb the energy of sudden physical stress.
  • Learn the proper technique for exercise and sporting activities. This will decrease stress on all your muscles, including your gluteal muscles.

RESOURCES

American Council on Exercise  http://www.acefitness.org 

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians  http://www.familydoctor.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada  https://www.canada.ca 

Healthy U  http://www.healthyalberta.com 

References

Bourne MN, Timmins RG, Opar DA, et al. An evidence-based framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring injury. Sports Med.2018;48(2):251-267.

Derry S, Moore RA, Gaskell H, McIntyre M, Wiffen PJ. Topical NSAIDs for acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2015;(6):CD007402.

Lehecka BJ, Edwards M, Haverkamp R, et al. Building a better gluteal bridge: Electromyographic analysis of hip muscle activity during modified single-leg bridges. Internat J Sports Phys Ther. 2017;12(4):543-549.

Muscle strains in the thigh. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00366. Updated March 2014. Accessed February 23, 2018.

Sports-related groin pain. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115701/Sports-related-groin-pain  . Updated March 2, 2017. Accessed February 23, 2018.

10/26/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance  https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115701/Sports-related-groin-pain  : Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.

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