by EBSCO Medical Review Board


Gonorrhea is a type of sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can cause serious health problems. You will need to seek medical treatment.


The infection is caused by a bacteria. It spreads during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Someone with gonorrhea can also pass the infection to a baby during childbirth.

Risk Factors

Gonorrhea is most common among sexually active young adults. The risk of STIs is higher in those with:

  • An STI or had one in the past
  • A new sex partner
  • More than one sex partner
  • A sex partner with an STI
  • Improper use of a condom


Most people who have gonorrhea do not have symptoms. If they do happen, they may appear 1 to 14 days after exposure. Some may not have symptoms for a month.

Genital problems may include:

  • Discharge from the penis
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge and/or unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Belly pain
  • Burning while urinating
  • Itching in the urethra

Rectal symptoms may be:

  • Itching
  • Soreness
  • Bleeding
  • Painful stools
Female Reproductive System Organs
Female Reproductive Organs
Copyright © 2002 Nucleus Communications, Inc. All rights reserved.

Untreated gonorrhea can cause severe infections in:

  • Joints
  • Brain
  • Eyes
  • Heart


The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may suspect an STI based on symptoms. The testing may also be done as a screening test for those at high risk. A sample of fluids may be taken from one of the following:

  • Vagina or penis
  • Throat
  • Rectum
  • Urine


Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. All sex partners should be tested and treated. Reinfection is possible and fairly common. It is important to take all antibiotics as recommended. Many forms of gonorrhea are resistant to common antibiotics. Other antibiotics will be tried to treat the infection. Testing will help to make sure treatment was successful and the infection has been stopped.

Untreated gonorrhea can lead to damage of pelvic organs. This can cause problems with fertility, pregnancy, and disrupt urine flow. It can also cause painful sore and scarring.


To lower your chances of getting gonorrhea:

  • Abstain from sex.
  • Have sex with only one partner.
  • Use a latex condom during sex if you or partner are having sex with more than 1 person.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 


Health Canada 

Sex Information and Education Council of Canada 


Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at Accessed December 31, 2020.

Gonococcal cervicitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Accessed December 31, 2020.

Gonococcal urethritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Accessed December 31, 2020.

Gonorrhea. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at Accessed December 31, 2020.

Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Dec 16;161(12):902-10.

Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.

Revision Information