Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, slow-growing blood cancer. It affects white blood cells called B lymphocytes. White blood cells protect the body from infection. HCL cells look hairy. Illness happens when these cells build up in the bone marrow and spleen.
|White Blood Cells|
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Leukemia starts in the bone marrow where blood cells are made. It happens when certain blood cells divide without control or order. The abnormal cells crowd out the healthy blood cells. This causes many of the symptoms.
The cause of HCL is not clear. It may be linked to changes in a gene.
There may be no symptoms at first. Symptoms of HCL usually develop slowly over time.
They may include:
- Belly swelling
- Night sweats
- Easy bruising
- Painless lumps in the neck, underarms, stomach, or groin
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may be done, such as:
- Blood tests—to look at blood cell counts
- Bone marrow biopsy—a sample of bone marrow is taken and tested
Images may be taken of bodily structures with a CT scan.
The treatment of HCL depends on symptoms. HCL is a slow-growing cancer. Treatment may not be needed at first. As HCL progresses, treatment may include:
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org
Canadian Cancer Society https://www.cancer.ca
Provincial Health Services Authority http://www.bccancer.bc.ca
General information about hairy cell leukemia treatment. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/hairy-cell-treatment-pdq. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Hairy cell leukemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/hairy-cell-leukemia. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Hairy cell leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society website. Available at: http://www.lls.org/leukemia/hairy-cell-leukemia. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Sarvaria A, Topp Z, et al. Current therapy and new directions in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia: a review. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(1):123-9.
Treating hairy cell leukemia. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia/treating/hairy-cell-leukemia.html. Accessed March 25, 2021.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 01/2021
- Update Date: 03/25/2021