by EBSCO Medical Review Board

Lifestyle changes may not directly affect multiple myeloma (MM). But, they can play an important role in overall physical and mental health. Some benefits are:

  • Help manage or lessen side effects of treatment.
  • Keep your immune system strong to aid in the fight against MM or other illnesses.
  • Improve your emotional outlook, so you can enjoy life to the fullest, even during treatment for MM.
  • Lower the risk of other problems that could complicate your health.

Quit Smoking

Smoking slows healing and may cause problems related to MM treatments. Quitting smoking boosts your immune system and helps your body heal faster. Talk to your doctor about the best ways to quit.

Reduce Your Risk of Infection

MM and its treatments lower the body's ability to fight off infection. Common infections, like a cold or the flu, can be more severe or take longer to bounce back from. To lower the risk of infection:

  • Wash hands thoroughly and often. Hand washing is the best way to lower the chance of catching colds and the flu. Carry hand sanitizer for times when washing is not convenient.
  • Try to stay away crowds, especially during cold and flu season.
  • Avoid touching the eyes, mouth, and nose after touching surfaces or objects.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects often.
  • Ask your doctor about the flu and pneumonia vaccines.

Make Dietary Changes

A healthful diet can help your body and mind. Making healthy choices gives fuel to help your body work at its best. It also gives your body nutrition to help heal it faster. Eating the right foods will also make you feel better and keep your weight in a normal range.

MM and its treatments can make you feel less hungry. Make the most of the calories you eat. A dietitian can help you with common eating problems. They can also help you plan meals.

Exercise Regularly

Exercise helps you keep your weight and supports the immune system. If you have not been exercising on a steady basis, check with your doctor to choose a safe program. Exercise has many benefits. It helps with:

  • Your fitness
  • Boosting your energy level
  • Makes the immune system work better
  • Boosting your spirits and outlook

Talk with a trainer to help you set goals. They will also help you do it safely, especially when starting out. While adding exercise, be sure to balance it with rest.

Manage Fatigue

Fatigue is the most common problem with MM and its treatments. To keep from getting overtired, work on tasks that need the most attention first. Allow others to help you with daily chores, shopping, and making meals. If needed, plan time to rest during the day.

Talk to your doctor if fatigue makes it hard for you to get through the day.

Prevent Falls

MM weakens bones and can lead to osteoporosis. Take steps to keep from falling and lower the risk of broken bones by:

  • Use supportive devices such as a cane or walker to help you get around.
  • Remove tripping hazards such as throw rugs, cords, or wires.
  • Add lighting to hallways and stairwells to make them brighter.
  • Keep items you use the most closest and within reach.
  • Put handrails in the kitchen, hallways, stairwells, and bathroom.
  • Ask for help from family and friends when you need it.

Seek Support

The diagnosis of MM is a life-defining event that can be hard to handle. It can be overwhelming to think and worry about treatment, changes, and uncertainty. Be sure to rely on family, friends, and other people in your life. People who allow themselves to seek help while they are recovering from MM can often have a better emotional balance. Other sources:

  • Religious community
  • Support groups for people with your type of cancer
  • Professional support from social workers, psychologists, or psychiatrists who are trained to help support cancer patients and their families

Family and caregivers may also need support. Encourage them to seek support groups or counseling geared toward them.

Comfort Measures

MM is especially difficult because it may be found in advanced stages, making it harder to treat. Some people choose treatments to help ease symptoms. Others choose to fully stop it. For some people, it may be realistic to start end-of-life planning. Aspects may include:

  • Choosing home or hospice care
  • Financial decisions
  • Advance directives—includes legal issues, like wills, hospital orders for your care, and power of attorney for medical care and finances
  • Insurance coverage

Talk your care team for guidance. You can be referred to a trained professional to guide you through the process.


Eat healthy and get active. American Cancer Society website. Available at: Accessed May 2, 2019.

Fractures/fall prevention. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: Accessed May 2, 2019.

Multiple myeloma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: . Updated March 29, 2019. Accessed May 2, 2019.

Multiple myeloma. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: Updated May 2018. Accessed May 2, 2019.

Treatment option overview. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: Updated April 9, 2019. Accessed May 2, 2019.

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