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Supplement Forms/Alternate Names

  • Magnesium Chloride
  • Magnesium Citrate
  • Magnesium Fumarate
  • Magnesium Gluconate
  • Magnesium Malate
  • Magnesium Orotate
  • Magnesium Oxide
  • Magnesium Sulfide

Introduction

Magnesium is an essential nutrient found in bran, nuts, and beans. Magnesium has been used to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. It has also been used to ease pain in the body and improve heart health. Magnesium can be taken as a pill or powder. It can also be injected into the bloodstream and muscle by a healthcare provider.

Dosages

300 to 400 milligrams daily

What Research Shows

Likely Effective

May Be Effective

Unlikely to Be Effective

Not Enough Data to Assess

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Safety Notes

It is likely safe to take magnesium in small doses. Amounts greater than 350 mg per day may be unsafe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. P1

Interactions

Talk to your doctor about any supplements or therapy you would like to use. Some can interfere with treatment or make conditions worse.

References

REFA Alcohol withdrawal

REFA1 Sarai M, Tejani AM, et al. Magnesium for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD008358.

REFB Anxiety

REFB1 Boyle NB, Lawton C, et al. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Apr 26;9(5).

REFC Asthma

REFC1 Knightly R, Millan SJ, et al. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD003898.

REFD Cardiac Arrhythmias

REFD1 Lee HY, Ghimire S, et al. Magnesium supplementation reduces postoperative arrhythmias after cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatrics: a metanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Aug;34(6):1396-403.

REFD2 Salaminia S, Sayehmiri F, et al. Evaluating the effect of magnesium supplementation and cardiac arrhythmias after acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018 Jun 28;18(1):129.

REFE Cystic Fibrosis

REFE1 Santi M, Milani GP, et al. Magnesium in cystic fibrosis--Systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Feb;51(2):196-202.

REFF Depression

REFF1 Derom ML, Sayón-Orea C, et al. Magnesium and depression: a systematic review. Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Sep;16(5):191-206.

REFG Diabetes

REFG1 Verma H, Garg R. Effect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017;30(5):621-633.

REFG2 Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:272-282.

REFG3 Fang X, Han H, et al. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016 Nov 19;8(11).

REFG4 Veronese N, Watutantrige-Fernando S, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;70(12):1354-1359.

REFH High blood pressure

REFH1 Kass L, Weekes J, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;66(4):411-418.

REFH2 Rosanoff A, Plesset MR. Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis. Magnes Res. 2013 Jul-Sep;26(3):93-99.

REFH3 Zhang X, Li Y, et al. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2016;68(2):324-333.

REFH4 Dibaba DT, Xun P, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep;106(3):921-929.

REFI Insulin Resistance

REFI1 Morais JBS, Severo JS, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin resistance in humans: A systematic review. Nutrition. 2017 Jun;38:54-60.

REFJ Lipid Profile

REFJ1 Simental-Mendía LE, Simental-Mendía M, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 May;73(5):525-536.

REFK Metabolic disorders

REFK1 Qu X, Jin F, et al. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57720.

REFK2 Fang X, Wang K, et al. Dietary magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMC Med. 2016;14(1):210.

REFK3 Guerrero-Romero F, Jaquez-Chairez FO, et al. Magnesium in metabolic syndrome: a review based on randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Magnes Res. 2016 Apr 1;29(4):146-153.

REFK4 Simental-Mendía, Sahebkar A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Pharmacol Res. 2016;111:272-282.

REFL Migraine

REFL1 Chiu HY, Yeh TH, et al. Effects of Intravenous and Oral Magnesium on Reducing Migraine: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician. 2016;(1):E97-112.

REFM Muscle cramps

REFM1 Garrison SR, Allan GM, et al. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(9):CD009402.

REFM2 Sebo P, Cerutti B, et al. Effect of magnesium therapy on nocturnal leg cramps: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with meta-analysis using simulations. Fam Pract. 2014;31(1):7-19.

REFN Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia

REFN1 Duley L, Gülmezoglu AM, et al. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(11):CD000025.

REFN2 Duly L, Henderson-Smart DJ, et al. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD000127.

REFO Pregnancy support

REFO1 Makrides M, Crosby DD, et al. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD000937.

REFO2 Zhou K, West HM, et al. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 11;(8):CD010655.

REFP Safety

REFP1 Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html. Accessed October 1, 2019.

REFQ Tetanus

REFQ1 Rodrio C, Samarakoon L, et al. A meta-analysis of magnesium for tetanus. Anaesthesia. 2012;67(12):1370-1374.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO NAT Review Board Eric Hurwitz, DC
  • Review Date: 03/2020
  • Update Date: 06/29/2020