by EBSCO Medical Review Board
(Bladder, Neurogenic—Child; Neurogenic Incontinence—Child; Incontinence, Neurogenic—Child)


Neurogenic bladder is a problem with how the bladder works because of a nerve problem. Problems may include:

  • Bladder empties too often
  • Incontinence—bladder empties at the wrong time.
  • Urinary retention—unable to completely empty the urine
  • Urine leaks out of the overfilled bladder
Bladder With Nerves, Female
BJ00029 97870 1.jpg
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


Neurogenic bladder is caused by damage or injury to the nerves carrying messages between the bladder and the brain. The nerve damage makes it difficult to coordinate when the bladder should empty.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your child's chance of neurogenic bladder include:

  • Birth defect that affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Tumors of the brain or spinal cord in the pelvic area
  • Infection of the brain or spinal cord


Symptoms may include:

  • Small amount of urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Dribbling urine
  • Inability to feel that the bladder is full
  • Straining during urination
  • Inability to urinate
  • Overflow of urine from a full bladder
  • Painful urination
  • Kidney injury from urine backing up into the bladder


You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. You may be asked to keep a diary of how often your child empties his or her bladder and other urinary habits.

Urine and blood tests may be done to help find a cause. Bladder function tests can also show how urine flow is affected.

Imaging tests may also be done to evaluate the bladder and urinary tract. These may include:


Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include the following:


Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent urinary tract infections.

Other medication may also be used to improve bladder function.


A thin tube, called a catheter, can be inserted to empty the bladder. This can be taught and done at home or a trained healthcare professional may do it.


If other treatments fail, surgery may be an option. The exact type of surgery will depend on what is causing the problems. Some surgical options include enlarging the bladder or creating an artificial sphincter to control urine flow.


Most cases of neurogenic bladder cannot be prevented.


National Association for Continence 

Urology Care Foundation 


Canadian/American Spinal Research Organization 



Neurogenic bladder in children. Boston Children’s Hospital website. Available at: Accessed January 29, 2021.

Neurogenic bladder. Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin website. Available at: Accessed January 29, 2021.

Neurogenic bladder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:  . Accessed January 29, 2021.

What is neurogenic bladder? Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: Accessed January 29, 2021.

Revision Information