A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland. It produces hormones that help regulate your body’s metabolism. It is located on the front of the neck, right below the Adam’s apple. Goiters are seldom painful. They tend to grow slowly.
There are different types of goiters. This sheet focuses on nontoxic goiter. It is a type of simple goiter that may be:
- Diffuse—enlarging the whole thyroid gland
- Nodular—enlargement caused by nodules, or lumps, on the thyroid
The development of nodules marks a progression of the goiter. It should be evaluated by your doctor.
|Goiter (Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland)|
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The exact causes of nontoxic goiter are not known. In general, goiters may be caused by too much or too little thyroid hormones. There is often normal thyroid function with a nontoxic goiter. Some possible causes of nontoxic goiter include:
- Family history of goiters
- Regular use of medications such as lithium, propylthiouracil, phenylbutazone, or aminoglutethimide
- Taking a lot of substances (goitrogens) that inhibit production of thyroid hormone—common goitrogens include foods such as cabbage, turnips, Brussel sprouts, seaweed, and millet
- Iodine deficiency—though rare in the US and other developed countries, it is a primary cause of goiter in other parts of the world, particularly in mountainous areas, or areas that experience heavy rainfall or flooding
Nontoxic goiter is more common in women and in people over age 40.
Other factors that may increase your chances of nontoxic goiter:
- A diet low in iodine
- Family history of goiter
- History of radiation therapy to head or neck, especially during childhood
Nontoxic goiters usually do not have noticeable symptoms, unless they become very large. Symptoms may include:
- Swelling of the neck
- Breathing difficulties, coughing, or wheezing with large goiter
- Difficulty swallowing with large goiter
- Feeling of pressure on the neck
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may recommend a specialist. An endocrinologist focuses on hormone related issues.
Your body fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Biopsy— fine needle aspiration
Images may be taken of your body structures. This can be done with:
Nontoxic goiters usually grow very slowly. They may not cause any symptoms. In this case, they do not need treatment.
Treatment may be needed if the goiter grows rapidly, affects your neck, or obstructs your breathing.
If a nontoxic goiter progresses to the nodular stage, and the nodule is found to be cancerous, you will need treatment. Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Hormone Suppression Therapy
Thyroid hormone medication is used to suppress secretion of thyrotropin (TSH). TSH is the thyroid-stimulating hormone that causes growth. This therapy is most effective for early stage goiters that have grown due to impaired hormone production. It is less effective for goiters that have progressed to the nodular stage.
Radioactive iodine treatment is used to reduce the size of large goiter. It is used when surgical treatment is not an option.
Thyroidectomy is done to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. It is the treatment of choice if the goiter is so large that it makes it difficult to breathe or swallow.
To help reduce your chances of a nontoxic goiter, be sure that your diet contains enough iodine.
American Thyroid Association https://www.thyroid.org
Hormone Health Network—Endocrine Society https://www.hormone.org
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Thyroid Foundation of Canada http://www.thyroid.ca
Bonnema SJ, Bennedbek FN, Ladenson PW, Hegedus L. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(1):112-117.
Bonnema SJ, Nielsen VE, Boel-Jorgensen H, et al. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trail. J Clin Endo Metab. 2007;92(9):3424-3428.
Diehl LA, Garcia V, Bonnema SJ, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter in Latin America: comparison with North America and Europe, an electronic survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(1):117-123.
Freitas JE. Therapeutic options in the management of toxic and nontoxic nodular goiter. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 2000;30(2):88-97.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
- Review Date: 11/2018
- Update Date: 12/20/2014