Pneumonia is an infection deep in the small airways and air sacs of the lungs. The infection will make the air sacs swell and fill with fluid or pus. This causes intense coughing and can make it difficult to breathe.
Types of pneumonia include:
- Community-acquired —infection is picked up in the community, such as home, school, or daycare
- Nosocomial—infection is picked up in a hospital or healthcare setting
- Aspiration —happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit
This article will focus on community-acquired pneumonia.
|Infection in the Air Sacs of the Lungs|
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Pneumonia is caused by a germ in the air that you breathe. Germs that most often cause community-acquired pneumonia include:
- Viruses—such as flu or cold viruses
- Fungus—more likely to happen in people with other health issues or immune system problems
Pneumonia is more common in children under the age of 5 years.
Factors that may increase your child’s chance of pneumonia include:
- Exposure to tobacco smoke
- Allergies or asthma
- Lack of immunization
- History of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis
- Chronic conditions that affect the lungs, such as cystic fibrosis
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Chronic conditions that weaken the immune system
- Birth defects of the heart or lungs
- Neuromuscular disorders that affect the lung function
- Sickle-cell anemia
Pneumonia may cause:
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Fever and chills
- Wheezing—a hoarse whistling sound
- Rapid breathing
Children may also have:
- Lower activity levels
- Lack of appetite or difficulty feeding
- Stomach pain or vomiting
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may suspect pneumonia based on the exam.
Blood and coughed fluids may be tested, but are not always needed.
Sometimes images of the lungs may be needed. Tests may include:
- Chest x-ray
Treatment of pneumonia depends on:
Treatment will be based on what may have caused the pneumonia and your child's overall health. More support may be needed if there is a severe infection. A hospital stay may be needed if it becomes difficult to breathe.
Treatment options may include:
The doctor may recommend:
- Antibiotics—for an infection caused by a bacteria
- Antiviral medications—for an infection caused by viruses
- Over-the-counter medications to reduce fever and discomfort
Oxygen may need to be given for severe infections. This will help to increase the level of oxygen that passes to the blood.
A hospital stay may be needed if:
- Child is not getting enough oxygen into their blood
- Child is dehydrated because they are not able to eat or drink enough
Treatments in the hospital may include:
- Oxygen therapy to increase levels of oxygen in the blood
- Nutrition and fluids through IV
- Medication delivered through IV
A hospital stay may also be needed for children with weaker immune systems.
Vaccines may help to prevent certain pneumonia:
- Flu vaccine—in all children aged 6 months and older
- PCV13 is recommended in all children, and routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- PCV23 in children aged 2 years and older who have a high risk of infection or a suppressed immune system
- Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years as part of the DTaP vaccine
- Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to children 11 years or older as part of the Tdap vaccine
Some children may have a higher risk of pneumonia. Medication may be given to these children after a cold or the flu to help prevent pneumonia.
To decrease your child’s risk of any respiratory infection:
- Do not expose your child to tobacco smoke. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection.
- Have your child avoid close contact with people who have a cold or the flu.
- Encourage your child to wash their hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick.
- Treat any chronic disease.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Community-acquired pneumonia in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113670/Community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children . Updated August 15, 2017. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 7, 2017. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/lung/pneumonia.html. Updated May 2011. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia. WHO website. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/. Updated September 2016. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia in Children. Bostons Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/pneumonia. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia in Children. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia website. Available at: http://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/pneumonia-children. Accessed August 23, 2017.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
- Review Date: 09/2018
- Update Date: 02/03/2015