by EBSCO Medical Review Board
(Bleeding, Postmenopausal; PMB)


Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is vaginal bleeding that happens 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period or in women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Female Reproductive Organs
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Some causes are:

Risk Factors

Some health problems and medicines can raise the risk of this problem.


Vaginal bleeding is a symptom of PMB.


You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a pelvic exam.

The pelvic organs will need to be viewed. This can be done with:

  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Saline infusion sonohysterography

Cell and tissue samples will be needed for testing. This can be done with:

  • Endometrial biopsy
  • Cervical cancer screening


Treatment will depend on the cause of the bleeding.


There are no current guidelines to prevent PMB.


The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 

Office on Women's Health 


Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada 

Women's Health Matters 


Perimenopausal bleeding and bleeding after menopause. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: Updated November 2018. Accessed July 22, 2020.

Postmenopausal bleeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: . Updated February 18, 2019. Accessed July 22, 2020.

Sonohysterography. Radiology Info—Radiological Society of North America website. Available at: Updated February 25, 2018. Accessed July 22, 2020.

Turnbull H, Glover A, et al. Investigation and management of abnormal peri-menopausal bleeding. Menopause Int. 2013 Dec;19(4):147-154.

Revision Information