by Preda A


Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are seizure-like movements, feelings, or behaviors.


PNES is caused by mental health problems. This may include intense emotions, trauma, or stress. A person may also have other problems, such as depression. It is not caused by problems with electrical signals in the brain.

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Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:

  • History of trauma, such as sexual trauma
  • A recent emotionally painful event, such as a divorce or the death of a loved one
  • Family history of epilepsy

Things that may raise the risk of this problem in children are:

  • Problems in school
  • Family conflict
  • Problem with others, such as bullying


Problems may be:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Staring off
  • Shaking
  • Muscles that move without control
  • Falling


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may need to see a doctor who treats the nervous system and the brain.

This information may be enough to suspect PNES. These tests may be done to rule out other types of seizures:


Treatment is focused on the cause of PNES. Mental health problems may be treated with one or more of these methods:

  • Individual or group mental health therapy to learn how to cope with stressors, change thought patterns, and learn new behaviors
  • Medicine to treat mental health problems


There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem.


Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy 

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians 


Epilepsy Canada 

Health Canada  h 


LaFrance WC Jr, Reuber M, et al. Management of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 2013 Mar;54 Suppl 1:53-67.

Non-epileptic seizures and dissociative seizures. Epilepsy Society website. Available at: Accessed November 19, 2020.

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Accessed November 19, 2020.

The truth about psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsy Foundation website. Available at: Accessed November 19, 2020.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 04/16/2021