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by Polsdorfer R

Definition

Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one or both arteries of the kidneys. This lowers the amount of blood flowing to one or both kidneys. Without treatment, it can lead to kidney failure .

The Kidney and its Main Blood Vessels
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Causes

The kidneys control blood pressure. If blood cannot get to the kidneys, then some hormones get out of balance. This makes blood pressure higher.

The two most common causes are:

  • Atherosclerosis —Plaque builds up in the arteries and blocks blood flow
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia—Muscle and tissue thicken on the artery wall and harden into rings that block blood flow

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:

  • High blood pressure
  • A blocked blood vessel in another part of the body
  • Past stroke or heart attack
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol

Symptoms

Most people do not have symptoms. Those who do may have:

  • Headache
  • Lightheadedness
  • Problems breathing
  • Chest pain

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a blood pressure check.

Blood and urine tests will be done to look for certain proteins and other things that point to this health problem.

Images may be taken. This can be done with:

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to lower blood pressure. Untreated high blood pressure can lead to stroke , heart attack , and kidney failure . Options are:

Lowering blood pressure will ease stress on the kidneys. Options are:

  • Lifestyle changes, such as not smoking, exercising, and eating a healthful diet
  • Medicines to lower blood pressure
  • Surgery, such as:
    • Percutaneous angioplasty—using a balloon or stent to open the artery and improve blood flow
    • Bypass—rebuilding a blood vessel by going around the blockage
    • Nephrectomy—Removal of one or both kidneys

Prevention

There are no known methods to prevent this health problem.

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases  https//www.niddk.nih.gov 

National Kidney Foundation  https://www.kidney.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada  https://www.canada.ca 

The Kidney Foundation of Canada  https://www.kidney.ca 

References

Renal artery stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/renal-artery-stenosis. Accessed April 6, 2022.

Renal artery stenosis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/renal-artery-stenosis. Accessed April 6, 2022.

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