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(Dislocated Shoulder; Glenohumeral Dislocation)

Definition

A shoulder dislocation is when the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) moves out of the shoulder socket. There are two types:

  • Partial dislocation—the head of the humerus slips out of the socket for a short time and then snaps back into place
  • Full dislocation—the head of the humerus comes fully out of the socket
Shoulder Dislocation
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Causes

Causes may be:

  • Falling on an outstretched arm
  • A direct blow to the shoulder, such as from a motor vehicle accident
  • Forceful throwing, lifting, or hitting
  • Force applied to an outstretched arm, such as in a football tackle

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:

Symptoms

The main problem is severe pain in the shoulder. Other problems may be:

  • Changes in the way the shoulder looks
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Numbness and tingling around the shoulder or in the arm or fingers
  • A shoulder that feels weak and unstable
  • Not being able to move the shoulder

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms, past health, and how the injury happened. A physical exam will be done. Images of the shoulder may be taken with:

Treatment

It may take 12 to 16 weeks to fully heal. The goals of treatment are to put the shoulder back into place and to manage symptoms.

The doctor will move the head of the humerus back into the shoulder socket. Medicine will be given to decrease pain. Recovery treatment may include:

  • Medicine to ease pain and swelling
  • Supportive care, such as resting the area and using cold or warm compresses
  • A sling or shoulder immobilizer to keep the shoulder in place as it heals
  • Physical therapy to help with strength, flexibility, and range of motion

Surgery is rarely needed when this problem happens the first time. It may be needed in a person whose shoulder repeatedly dislocates.

Prevention

This injury is due to an accident. These are hard to prevent.

RESOURCES

Ortho Info— American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons  http://www.orthoinfo.org 

Sports Med—American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine  http://www.sportsmed.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Association  http://www.coa-aco.org 

Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation  http://www.canorth.org 

References

Dislocated shoulder. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/dislocated-shoulder. Accessed February 17, 2021.

Patel DN, Zuckerman JD, et al. Luxatio erecta: case series with review of diagnostic and management principles. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2011 Nov;40(11):566-570.

Shoulder dislocation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/shoulder-dislocation. Accessed February 17, 2021.

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