A sore throat is the general name for 2 common conditions:
- Pharyngitis—swelling and inflammation of the back of the throat, including the back of the tongue
- Tonsillopharyngitis—swelling and inflammation of the throat behind the mouth and nose and the tonsils
|Sore Throat Due to Inflammation|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Many things can cause a sore throat such as:
- Viral infections such as the flu, mononucleosis, and the common cold
- Bacterial infections such as strep throat
- Mucus from your sinuses that drains into your throat
- Breathing polluted air
- Drinking alcoholic beverages
- Seasonal or other allergies
- Acid reflux from the stomach
- Food debris collecting in small pockets in the tonsils
- Certain immune or inflammatory disorders
Sore throats are more common children, teens, or people aged 65 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of a sore throat include:
- Exposure to someone with a sore throat or any other infection involving the throat or nose
- Exposure to cigarette smoke, toxic fumes, industrial smoke, and other air pollutants
- Having seasonal or other allergies
- Having other conditions that affect your immune system, such as HIV infection or cancer
Along with the sore throat, you may have other symptoms such as:
- Difficulty swallowing
- Runny or stuffy nose
- Enlarged lymph nodes in your neck
- Hoarse voice
- Red or irritated-looking throat
- Swollen tonsils
- White patches on or near your tonsils
- Difficulty breathing
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor if you:
- Experience a worsening of your sore throat or the symptom lasts longer than you or your doctor expect
- Have difficulty swallowing or breathing
Have developed other symptoms, such as:
- White patches on tonsils (may be a sign of strep throat)
- Enlarged lymph nodes on your neck
- Nausea or vomiting
- Muscle or joint aches
- Blood in saliva
The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests calling your child's doctor if your child has a sore throat that goes on for more than 1 day (no matter what other symptoms are present).
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Your doctor will do a physical exam. This involves looking closely at your mouth, throat, nose, ears, and the lymph nodes in your neck.
This physical exam may include:
- Using a small instrument to look inside the nose, ears, and mouth
- Gently touching the lymph nodes (glands) in your neck to check for swelling
- Taking your temperature
The doctor will ask questions about:
- Your family and medical history
- Recent exposure to someone with strep throat or any other infection of the throat, nose, or ears
Other tests include:
- Rapid strep test or throat culture—using a cotton swab to touch the back of the throat to check for strep throat
- Blood tests—to identify other conditions that may be causing the sore throat
- Mono spot test—if mononucleosis is suspected
Treatment depends on the cause of the sore throat. Options may include:
Pain relievers or fever reducers
- Note: Aspirin is not recommended for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin.
- Antibiotics for a sore throat caused by a bacterial infection
- Throat lozenges
Decongestants and antihistamines to relieve nasal congestion and runny nose
- Note: Over the counter cough and cold medicine should not be given to children under 4 years old. This type of medicine can cause serious life-threatening problems in young children.
- Numbing throat spray for pain control in older children and adults, although the relief is very short-lived
- Corticosteroids to help manage discomfort or help breathing if there is trouble
Other Steps to Manage Symptoms
Self-care steps that may help you feel better include:
- Get plenty of rest
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Try warm liquids (tea or broth), or cool liquids
- Gargle with warm saline several times a day
- Avoid irritants that might affect your throat, such as tobacco smoke and cold air
- Avoid drinking alcohol
To help reduce your chances of a sore throat:
- Wash your hands frequently. Do this especially after blowing your nose or after caring for a child with a sore throat.
- If someone in your home has a sore throat, keep their eating utensils and drinking glasses separate from those of other family members. Wash these objects in hot, soapy water.
- If a toddler with a sore throat has been sucking on toys, wash the toys in soap and water.
- Immediately get rid of used tissues, and then wash your hands.
- If you have hay fever or another respiratory allergy, create a plan to manage allergies. This should include avoiding allergens and taking medicine before exposure.
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics https://www.healthychildren.org
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases https://www.niaid.nih.gov
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology http://www.entcanada.org
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Choby BA. Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79(5):383-390.
Pharyngitis - Approach to the Patient. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/pharyngitis-approach-to-the-patient-25 . Updated August 25, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Sore throat. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/sore-throat. Updated May 2014. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Sore throat. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/health/sore-throat-leaflet. Accessed October 19, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017
The difference between a sore throat, strep and tonsillitis. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/ear-nose-throat/Pages/The-Difference-Between-a-Sore-Throat-Strep-and-Tonsillitis.aspx. Updated February 26, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Throat problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/symptom/throat-problems. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Vincent MT, Celestin N, Hussain AN. Pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(6):1465-1470.
11/10/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://www.dynamed.com/management/steroids-for-pharyngitis-15 : Hayward G, Thompson M, Heneghan C, Perera R, Del Mar C, Glasziou P. Corticosteroids for pain relief in sore throat: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b2976.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
- Review Date: 09/2018
- Update Date: 04/20/2020