Cervical stenosis is a narrowing of the canal of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). It connects the uterus with the vagina.
This problem can happen when the canal becomes inflamed. Common causes of this are:
- Surgery on the cervix, such as:
- Radiation therapy
- Cervical endometriosis
- A tumor or mass
- Infection, such as cervicitis
Some people have this problem at birth. It is not known why this happens.
This problem is more common after menopause.
The risk of this problem is also higher in people:
- Whose mothers took diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy
- Have endometriosis
Most people do not have problems. Those who do may have:
- Painful periods
- Absent periods
- Abnormal bleeding
- Problems getting pregnant
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. Physical and pelvic exams will be done. The doctor may have problems passing tools through the cervix during the pelvic exam. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.
People who are not having problems do not need treatment.
If needed, a procedure will be done to widen the canal. Rods will be passed into the canal to stretch the cervix. A mesh tube may also be put into the cervix for a few weeks. It will help to prop open the cervix until the area heals. Tissue may be removed from the cervix.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists https://www.acog.org
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians https://www.familydoctor.org
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada https://www.sogc.org
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). The Use of Hysteroscopy for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intrauterine Pathology: ACOG Committee Opinion, Number 800. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Mar;135(3):e138-e148.
Cervical stenosis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/miscellaneous-gynecologic-disorders/cervical-stenosis. Accessed March 4, 2021.
Hysteroscopy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/procedure/hysteroscopy. Accessed March 4, 2021.
Stenosis of the uterine cervix. Radiopaedia—Radiological Society of North America website. Available at: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/stenosis-of-the-uterine-cervix?lang=us. Accessed March 4, 2021.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD
- Review Date: 06/2021
- Update Date: 06/16/2021