Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is when the immune system makes antibodies that attack the body's healthy cells and tissue. There are many forms of lupus, but SLE is the most common.
SLE is more common in women aged 15 to 45 years of age. It is also more common in people who are Black, Asian, and Hispanic.
Other things that may raise the risk are:
- Family history
- Oral contraceptives
- Celiac disease
Symptoms can be mild or severe. It can affect one part of the body or many. Though symptoms can last a long time, there are often times without symptoms in between.
Problems may be:
- Swollen and painful joints
- Swollen muscles
- Skin rashes over areas exposed to sunlight
- Mouth sores
- Hair loss
- Belly pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Weight loss
- Problems breathing
- Chest pain
|Common SLE Rash Sites|
|Facial butterfly rash is a hallmark symptom of SLE.|
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The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. Symptoms differ for each person and change over time. This can make it hard to diagnose.
Tests that may be done include:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Images taken with an MRI scan
- Skin biopsy
There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms. One or more of these medicines may be used:
- Antimalarial drugs
- Drugs to suppress the immune system
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- B-cell therapy
- Blood thinners
A person will also need to prevent flare ups. This can be done with things like staying out of the sun, limiting stress, and getting enough rest.
Lupus Foundation of America http://www.lupus.org
Lupus Research Institute http://www.lupusresearchinstitute.org
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://kidney.ca
Lupus Canada http://www.lupuscanada.org
Fanouriakis A, Kostopoulou M, et al. 2019 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jun;78(6):736-745.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Lupus/default.asp. Accessed January 8, 2021.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle. Accessed January 8, 2021.
Understanding lupus. Lupus Foundation of America website. Available at: http://www.lupus.org/answers/topic/understanding-lupus. Accessed January 8, 2021.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD
- Review Date: 12/2020
- Update Date: 01/08/2021