by EBSCO Medical Review Board


Tetanus is an infection of the nervous system. It can be deadly when it is not treated. There are different types.


Tetanus is caused by bacteria that is found in soil, dust, or manure. It enters your body through a break in the skin. Once inside the bacteria makes a toxin. This toxin causes tetanus.

Puncture Wound
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Risk Factors

Tetanus is most common in places that have rich, moist climates. Other things that may raise your risk are:

  • Not having an up to date tetanus vaccination
  • Injuries such as cuts or burns that have soil or unclean items in it
  • Childbirth in places that are not clean
  • Long-term wounds, such as a diabetic foot ulcers which have soil or unclean items
  • Injection drug use


Symptoms may include:

  • A stiff, cramping jaw or neck
  • Muscle spasms, often in the belly
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Problems being able to swallow and breathe
  • Jerking movements
  • Staring off
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Fever


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health past. An exam will be done. Vaccination history may be needed. This can be enough to make the diagnosis.


Care is needed right away. Some people may need help with breathing. Other treatments may include:

  • Medicine:
    • Tetanus immune globulin to stop the tetanus toxin
    • Antibiotics to treat infection
    • Medicine to control muscle spasms, such as benzodiazepines
    • Medicine to help the nervous system work better
  • Surgery—to open and clean any skin wounds.

A tetanus vaccine may be given to those who have not had a recent one.


The best way to lower the chances of tetanus is to get the vaccination:

  • Children should get the DTaP vaccine series.
  • A single dose of Tdap vaccine is needed for children aged 11 years or older.
  • All adults should also receive one dose of Tdap. Pregnant women should receive a dose of Tdap with every pregnancy. This can help to prevent pertussis in the baby.
  • Adults should get a booster dose of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine (Td) every 10 years.

Other things that can lower the risk are:

  • Cleaning all wounds right away
  • Seeking care for severe wounds


National Foundation for Infectious Diseases 

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 


Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society 

The College of Family Physicians of Canada 


Tetanus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: . Updated May 14, 2018. Accessed March 18, 2020.

Tetanus vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated February 28, 2019. Accessed March 18, 2020.

Thwaites CL, Beeching NJ, et al. Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet. 2015 Jan 24;385(9965):362-370.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
  • Review Date: 03/2020
  • Update Date: 09/09/2020