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by Carmack A
(Pseudomembranous trigonitis)


The trigone is a part of the lower bladder. Trigonitis is inflammation of this area.

The Bladder
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Trigonitis is caused by a change in cells of this area. It is not clear why this happens in some people and not others. The change may be related to:

  • Bladder irritation
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Hormones

Risk Factors

Trigonitis is more common in women. It may also be more likely in those that have catheters in place for a long period of time.


Trigonitis may cause:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Problems passing urine
  • An increase in the urge to urinate


The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. Tests may be done to rule out other problems that cause same symptoms. Tests may include

  • Urine tests
  • Urine culture
  • Blood tests


Trigonitis may pass on its own. Others may need treatment to ease symptoms. Medicine may help to:

  • Ease bladder spasms or pain
  • Treat any infections that may be present (antibiotics)


Catheters increase the risk of trigonitis. Limiting use and length of use may decrease the risk.


Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians  https://familydoctor.org 

Urology Care Foundation  http://www.urologyhealth.org 


Canadian Urological Association  http://www.cua.org 

Health Canada  https://www.canada.ca 


Cheung WW, Kawa S. Trigonitis. Medscape website. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438185-overview. Accessed September 3, 2020.

Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:  https://www.dynamed.com/condition/complicated-urinary-tract-infection-uti  . Accessed September 3, 2020.

Stavropoulos M, Papatsoris AG, Konstantinidis C, Chrisofos M. Pseudomembranous trigonitis: a common but underrecognized urological entity. Adv Urol. 2010;2010:269254 Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2997493.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 09/03/2020