Acute abdomen is a medical term. It's used to describe sudden and severe pain in the belly. This kind of pain can signal a larger problem. Some may need care right away.
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There are many reasons causes for abdominal pain such as:
Inflammation in the:
Health conditions such as:
- An infection or abscess
- Peptic ulcer
- Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Kidney stones
- Ruptured or leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm
Other problems such as:
- Blockage in the small or large intestine
- Lack of blood flow to the organs in the belly
- Menstrual cramps
- Uterine fibroids
- Ovarian cysts
- Pelvic inflammatory disease —inflammation around the organs in the pelvis because of an infection
- Miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy
Having any of the problems listed above will make the chances of pain in your belly higher.
The symptoms you have will depend on the cause. The most common are:
- Persistent, severe pain, swelling, or tenderness in the upper, middle, or lower part of the belly
- Guarding—involuntary contraction of the muscles in the belly
- Rigidity—when muscles in the belly are tense and board-like
You will be asked for details about your pain. You will also be asked about other problems you may be having. A health history will be taken. You will be asked about any medicines you’ve taken. A physical exam will be done. This will involve checking the pelvis and rectum. You may also have:
You may be given pain relievers. Talk to your doctor before you eat, drink, or take any medicine.
The cause of belly pain will need to be treated. Sometimes it's an emergency and surgery is needed right away.
Other methods may be with:
- Diet or lifestyle changes
Acute abdomen may not be preventable. It has many causes. If you're at high risk for problems, talk to your doctor.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians https://familydoctor.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology https://www.cag-acg.org
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation http://www.cdhf.ca
Abdominal pain (stomach pain), short-term. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/symptom/abdominal-pain-stomach-pain-short-term. Accessed August 23, 2018.
Acute abdominal pain in adults—approach to the patient. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T912361/Acute-abdominal-pain-in-adults-approach-to-the-patient . Updated October 21, 2016. Accessed August 23, 2018.
Cartwright S, Knudson M. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(7):452-459.
Cartwright S, Knudson M. Evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(7):971-978.
Leung A, Sigalet D. Acute abdominal pain in children. Am Fam Physician. 20031;67(11):2321-2327.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 05/2018
- Update Date: 08/23/2018