Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. This article will focus on cystitis caused by an infection.
|The Urinary Tract|
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Bacteria can cause an infection in the bladder. The bacteria normally live in the colon or vagina. It may be passed or move to the area urine leaves the body. The bacteria can then travel up into the bladder. If a bladder infection is left untreated it can lead to a kidney infection.
Less often, acute cystitis nay be caused by medication or trauma.
Acute cystitis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
- Being sexually active
- Use of spermicide
- New sexual partner
- History of acute cystitis
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:
- Weak immune system
- Bladder catheter in place or recently used
- Neurogenic bladder
- Renal insufficiency
- Kidney stones
- Problems in the urinary tract that slow the flow of urine, such as vesicoureteral reflux or polycystic kidneys
- History of kidney transplant
Symptoms may include:
- Urgent need to urinate
- Small amounts of urine during urination
- Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
- Burning sensation during urination
- Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
- Increased need to get up at night to urinate
- Leaking of urine
- Fever and chills
- Nausea and low desire to eat
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. A sample of your urine will be studied for blood and pus. Sometimes the urine will be tested to look for the exact type of bacteria.
A CT scan may be needed for more severe or recurrent problems. The scan may help to see problems or blockages in the bladder.
A bladder infection can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all of the medication as recommended. A hospital stay may be needed with a severe infection. This will allow the antibiotics to be delivered through IV.
The infection may cause pain and spasms in the bladder. Your doctor may recommend medicine to help manage pain until it passes.
If the cystitis is caused by medication or trauma those causes will need to be managed.
To help decrease the risk of a bladder infection:
- Empty your bladder completely and drink a full glass of water after having sex.
- Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
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Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(77):771-776.
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Katchman EA, Milo G, et al. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2005;118(11):1196-1207.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelonephritis and cystitis). DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116894/Uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-UTI-pyelonephritis-and-cystitis. Accessed January 29, 2021.
What I need to know about urinary tract infections. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uti%5Fez. Accessed January 29, 2021.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 03/2020
- Update Date: 00/12/2021