by Cresse M
(BD; Buttonhole Deformity; Central Slip Disruption; Central Slip Injury; Deformity of Finger, Boutonnière; Extensor Tendon Rupture; PIP Joint Sprain)

Definition

Boutonnière deformity is damage to the tissue of the middle joint of the finger. It makes it hard to straighten the finger.

Tendons in the Finger
Finger Tendon
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

This problem may be caused by:

  • A cut to the top of the finger
  • A blow to the top of a bent middle finger with an object, such as a ball
  • Weak tendons from health problems, such as rheumatoid arthritis

Risk Factors

Rheumatoid arthritiscan raise your risk of this problem.

Symptoms

Symptoms may be:

  • A cut to the top of the finger
  • Pain and swelling
  • Problems opening straightening the finger
  • A change in the way the finger looks or feels

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done, paying close attention to the finger. You may be asked how the injury happened.

An x-ray may be done to check for a fracture.

Treatment

A splint will be needed to protect the finger as it heals. Other options are:

Medications

Medicine may be needed to ease pain and swelling. It may be given by mouth or with an injection.

Antibiotics may also be used to treat an infection.

Surgery

Some people may need surgery to repair the tendon. Exercises will also be given to help with finger strength and motion.

Prevention

This injury often happens due to accidents. There are no guidelines to prevent it.

RESOURCES

National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases  http://www.niams.nih.gov 

Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons  http://orthoinfo.aaos.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation  http://www.canorth.org 

Canadian Physiotherapy Association  http://www.physiotherapy.ca 

References

Boutonniere deformity of the finger. Orthogate website. Available at: http://www.orthogate.org/patient-education/hand/boutonniere-deformity-of-the-finger.html. Published September 4, 2015. Accessed September 23, 2019.

Boutonniere deformity—emergency management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:  https://www.dynamed.com/management/boutonniere-deformity-emergency-management  . Accessed September 23, 2019.

McMurtry JT, Isaacs J. Extensor tendons injuries. Clin Sports Med 2015. Jan;34(1):167-80.

Revision Information