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(Baseball Finger)

Definition

Mallet finger is when the tendon on the top of a finger or thumb is stretched or torn. This makes it hard to straighten. This injury sometimes includes a small fracture of the finger.

Bones, Tendons, and Muscles of the Hand
Hand anatomy
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Causes

The most common cause is when the tip of a finger is forcibly flexed or hit against a solid object, such as a ball. This causes the tendon to be torn and unable to fully extend the top of the finger or thumb.

Risk Factors

This problem is more common in men and people who are middle-aged. People who play ball sports like baseball and basketball are also at higher risk.

Symptoms

Problems may be:

  • Pain and swelling in the tip of the finger or thumb
  • Problems extending the finger or thumb

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the hand. This is often enough to make the diagnosis. Some people may need to see a doctor who treats hands.

Images may be taken to check for a fracture. This can be done with an X-ray.

Treatment

It will take 6 to 8 weeks for most people to heal. The finger or thumb may always droop a little after the tendon heals. It should not affect function. The goals of treatment are to ease pain and swelling. This may include:

  • Medicine to ease pain and swelling
  • A splint to prevent the finger or thumb from moving as it heals
  • Exercises to help with strength, flexibility, and range of motion

Surgery

Some people may need surgery when other methods do not help the tendon. This is not common. It may be done to by taking a tendon from another place in the body and putting it in the finger. The joint can also be fused in a straight position.

People who have a fracture may need surgery. It is done using pins to hold the pieces of bone together as they heal.

Prevention

There are no known guidelines to prevent this problem.

RESOURCES

American College of Sports Medicine  http://www.acsm.org 

American Physical Therapy Association.  http://www.apta.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Association  http://www.coa-aco.org 

Canadian Rheumatology Association  http://www.rheum.ca 

References

Lamaris GA, Matthew MK. The diagnosis and management of mallet finger injuries. Hand. 2017; 12(3):223-228.

Leggit JC, Meko CJ. Acute finger injuries: part I. Tendons and ligaments. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Mar 1;73(5):810-816.

Mallet finger. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:  https://www.dynamed.com/condition/mallet-finger . Updated June 5, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2019.

Revision Information